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GLOSSARY OF HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY TERMINOLOGY

Andropause

Andropause, also referred to as male menopause, is a process men typically go through in the middle years of life (or as early as 30). During this phase, testosterone levels decrease in the male body, which may lead to lower sex drive, impaired sexual performance, disrupted sleep cycles and lower energy levels. Men may also experience a loss in bone and muscle mass as a result of low testosterone or “low-T.” Studies performed on male subjects over a number of years have shown that low testosterone can also be detrimental to health by significantly increasing the risk for osteoporosis and diabetes. At the same time, other studies have shown higher testosterone levels are linked to healthier bodies and longer life expectancies.

Symptoms of low testosterone may closely mimic the signs of the natural aging process, which can make it difficult for patients to know exactly what they are dealing with. In some cases, low testosterone is misdiagnosed as another condition, such as depression, and treatment is focused on dealing with the symptom rather than the underlying hormone deficiency. Low testosterone levels are so common in patients diagnosed with diabetes and other age-related condition, the Endocrine Society now recommends all men diagnosed with type 2 diabetes have testosterone levels assessed on a regular basis.

Antioxidants

Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals.

BHRT: (Biodentical Hormone Replacement Therapy)

This utilizes bioidentical hormones, which are derived from plant compounds to be identical to the hormones naturally produced in our body.

CBC (Complete Blood Count)

The complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most commonly ordered blood tests. The complete blood count is the calculation of the cellular (formed elements) of blood. These calculations are generally determined by special machines that analyze the different components of blood in less than a minute. A major portion of the complete blood count is the measure of the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood.

CMP (Complete Metabolic)

A comprehensive metabolic panel is a blood test that measures your sugar (glucose) level, electrolyte and fluid balance, kidney function, and liver function.

C-Reactive Protein

C-reactive protein is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation throughout the body.

Cortisol

A steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex.

DHEA

Dehydroepiandrosterone: A steroid hormone naturally produced by the adrenal glands and sold in synthetic form as a nutritional supplement.

Estradiol

Estradiol is a form of estrogen, a female sex hormone produced by the ovaries. Estrogen is necessary for many processes in the body.
Estradiol is used to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, and vaginal dryness, burning, and irritation. Other uses include prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and replacement of estrogen in women with ovarian failure or other conditions that cause a lack of natural estrogen in the body. Estradiol is sometimes used as part of cancer treatment in women and men.

Ferritin Serum

Ferritin is a protein found inside cells that stores iron so your body can use it later. A ferritin test indirectly measures the amount of iron in your blood.

Testosterone, Free & Total:

(the blood test more commonly authorized) tells how much testosterone is in the bloodstream all together. Some of that testosterone is bound to molecules such as SHBG (sex hormone binding globuline). When it’s bound, it does not create a physiologic sense of sexual desire. So, we want to know about the free testosterone instead.

Free T3

This test measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well free T4 and free T3 in the blood serum.

Glycation

Glycation, or Glycation of proteins, is caused by glucose that arises from the digestion of carbohydrates — any carbohydrates. Glycation occurs when blood glucose (blood sugar) and its by-products bind to the proteins that make up your body. This includes structural proteins such as skin and organs, genetic proteins such as DNA and RNA, and the all-important mitochondria which produce energy for living. The problem with glycation is that some of it is irreversible and can damage the body in some cases for life. Glycation can be slowed and prevention is easy and should come naturally.

Gonadotropin

A hormone that stimulates the growth and activity of the gonads, especially any of several pituitary hormones that stimulate the function of the ovaries and testes. Also called gonadotropic hormone.

HCG: (Human Chronic Gonadotropin)

A glycoprotein hormone similar in structure to luteinizing hormone that is secreted by the placenta during early pregnancy to maintain corpus luteum function and stimulate placental progesterone production, is found in the urine and blood serum of pregnant women, is commonly tested for as an indicator of pregnancy, is used medically to induce ovulation and to treat male hypogonadism and cryptorchidism.

Hemoglobin A1C

HbA1c is a lab test that shows the average amount of sugar in your blood over 3 months. It shows how well you are controlling your diabetes.

HGH: (Human Growth Hormone)

Sufficient HGH (Human Growth Hormone) levels are an essential element of a lifestyle that promotes optimal health, vitality and longevity. HGH is a protein-based hormone that stimulates cell, bone, and muscle growth. It is known as the ‘master hormone’ or ‘longevity hormone.’ HGH is used by the body to promote…

Homocysteine Plasma

Homocysteine is an amino acid in your blood that our bodies use for energy production. Homocysteine levels are strongly influenced by your diet, as well as by genetic factors. Homocysteine is acquired mainly from eating meat whereas folic acid and other B vitamins help break down homocysteine.

Hypothalamus

The part of the brain that lies below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon, and that regulates bodily temperature, certain metabolic processes, and other autonomic activities.

Hypothyroidism

Is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.

IGF-1 (Insulin Growth Factor)

IGF-1 is the abbreviation for Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1.Know in scientific circles as a polypeptide protein hormone, IGF-1 or Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 plays a vital role in childhood growth and stimulates anabolic effects (muscle building) in adults.

IGF-BP3 (Binding Protein 3)

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) is the main carrier of somatomedin C (also called insulin-like growth factor-1, or IGF-1) in the body. Blood levels of both these proteins are controlled by human growth hormone (hGH), a hormone that’s produced by the pituitary gland, a pea-sized gland in the brain that regulates growth and the function of other glands.

Intramuscular Injections

An intramuscular (IM) injection is a shot. The needle goes into the muscle to deliver medicine. This is usually done by a doctor or nurse. Sometimes, your doctor may teach you to inject yourself. IM injections are deeper than subcutaneous injections (given under the skin).

LH (Luteinizing Hormone)

A hormone released by the pituitary gland in response to luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone. Abbreviated LH, it controls the length and sequence of the female menstrual cycle, including ovulation, preparation the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, and ovarian production of both estrogen and progesterone. In males, it stimulates the testes to produce androgen. Also known as interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH).

Lipid Panel (LDL/HDL)

A lipid panel is a blood test that measures lipids-fats and fatty substances used as a source of energy by your body. Lipids include cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

Low T

As men age, we will go through andropause (male menopause), where our production of testosterone decreases. This is often called ‘Low-T.’ This adversely affects our sex drive and performance, energy level, ability to sleep, muscle and bone mass. Studies that followed groups of men over five, 10 and 15-year periods…

Menopause

The period of permanent cessation of menstruation, usually occurring between the ages of 45 and 55.

Milk Thistle

(Silybum marianum) has been used for 2,000 years as an herbal remedy for a variety of ailments, particularly liver, kidney, and gall bladder problems. Several scientific studies suggest that substances in milk thistle (especially a flavonoid called silymarin) protect the liver from toxins, including certain drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), which can cause liver damage in high doses. Silymarin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and it may help the liver repair itself by growing new cells.

Mitochondria

Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles that can be considered the power generators of the cell, converting oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the chemical energy “currency” of the cell that powers the cell’s metabolic activities. This process is called aerobic respiration and is the reason animals breathe oxygen.

NMR LipoProfile

Is an advanced cardiovascular diagnostic test developed by LipoScience that uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to uniquely provide rapid, simultaneous and direct measurement of LDL particle number and size of LDL particles, as well as direct measurement of HDL and VLDL subclasses. This detailed lipoprotein particle information allows clinicians to make more effective individualized treatment decisions than previously possible based on standard lipid panel testing. The atherosclerotic culprit is LDL particle number, not LDL cholesterol.

Osteoporosis

Is a condition characterized by a decrease in the density of bone, decreasing its strength and resulting in fragile bones.

Oxidative Stress

(OS) is a general term used to describe the steady state level of oxidative damage in a cell, tissue, or organ, caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS). This damage can affect a specific molecule or the entire organism. Reactive oxygen species, such as free radicals and peroxides, represent a class of molecules that are derived from the metabolism of oxygen and exist inherently in all aerobic organisms.

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland is a tiny organ, the size of a pea, found at the base of the brain. As the master gland of the body, it produces and secretes many hormones that travel throughout the body, directing certain processes stimulating other glands to produce different types of hormones. The pituitary gland controls biochemical processes important to our well-being.

Pregnenolone

Is a naturally occurring metabolite that is made in your body. It is often referred to as the ‘mother steroid compound’ because it is the basic raw material for all steroid hormones in the body. This includes cortisone, Progesterone, estrogen, testosterone and DHEA.

Progesterone

Progesterone is used as a part of hormone replacement therapy in women who have passed menopause (the change of life) and have not had a hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus). Hormone replacement therapy usually includes estrogen, which is used to treat symptoms of menopause and reduce the risk of developing certain diseases. However, estrogen can also cause abnormal thickening of the lining of the uterus and increase the risk of developing uterine cancer. Progesterone helps to prevent this thickening and decreases the risk of developing uterine cancer. Progesterone is also used to bring on menstruation (period) in women of childbearing age who have had normal periods and then stopped menstruating. Progesterone is in a class of medications called progestins (female hormones). It works as part of hormone replacement therapy by decreasing the amount of estrogen in the uterus. It works to bring on menstruation by replacing the natural progesterone that some women are missing.

Progesterone Test

A progesterone test measures the amount of the hormone progesterone in a blood sample. Progesterone is a female hormone produced by the ovaries during release of a mature egg from an ovary (ovulation). Progesterone helps prepare the lining of the uterus (endometrium) to receive the egg if it becomes fertilized by a sperm. If the egg is not fertilized, progesterone levels drop and menstrual bleeding begins.

Prolactin

Is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood.

PSA - Prostate (Men Only)

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. The doctor takes a blood sample, and the amount of PSA is measured in a laboratory. Because PSA is produced by the body and can be used to detect disease, it is sometimes called a biological marker or a tumor marker.

Saw Palmeto

Is a medicinal herb that is believed to help cure benign prostatic hypertrophy or, simply, enlargement of the prostate.

SHBG

A SHBG test is primarily ordered to evaluate the status of a patient’s androgens – the male hormones. With men, the issue of concern is testosterone deficiency, while with women the concern is excess testosterone production. A total testosterone may be ordered prior to or along with a SHBG test.

Subcutaneous

Under the skin. “Subcutaneous” implies just under the skin.

Resveratrol

A compound found in red grapes, mulberries, peanuts, and certain plants, used medicinally as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.

Testosterone

The sex hormone, C 19 H 28 O 2 , secreted by the testes, that stimulates the development of male sex organs, secondary sexual traits, and sperm.

Tropical

Pertaining to a particular surface area. A topical agent is applied to a certain area of the skin and is intended to affect only the area to which it is applied. Whether its effects are indeed limited to that area depends upon whether the agent stays where it is put or is absorbed into the blood stream.

Thyroid Panel with TSH

A thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) blood test is used to check for thyroid gland problems. TSH is produced when the hypothalamus releases a substance called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH then triggers the pituitary gland to release TSH.

Vitamin D, 25 - Hydroxy

The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body.

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